(The following is from "NASA, The First 25 Years 1958-1983: A Resource for Teachers" published by NASA and printed by the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1983, p. 96.)
The Ranger program was a probe series to transmit close-up black and white photographs of the Moon before crashing into the lunar surface. Three of the nine Rangers (7, 8, 9) were successful. Rangers 1 through 5 experienced technical problems which affected the success of the missions: the launch vehicles malfunctioned for Rangers 1 and 2, Rangers 3 and 5 missed the Moon, and Ranger 4 landed on the back side of the Moon and returned no data.
Ranger 7, 8, and 9 findings: A gently rolling terrain with no sharp relief; and a layer of powdery rubble, with rocks and craters down to at least one meter in diameter everywhere.
January 30-February 2, 1964. Lunar impact point of hard landing within 32 km (20 mi) of target; TV system failed to operate.
July 28-31, 1964. First successful Ranger mission; 4,316 high resolution TV pictures of the lunar surface were returned, with objects less than .9m (3 ft) discernible; impact on Sea of Clouds 13-16 km (8-10 mi) from aim point; flight time: 68 hours, 36 minutes.
February 17-20, 1965. 7,137 pictures returned from Sea of Tranquillity; flight time: 64 hours, 63 minutes.
March 21-24, 1965. 5,814 pictures of Crater Alphonsus and vicinity returned; 4.8 km (3 mi) from target; flight time: 64 hours, 31 minutes.